Many of the deaths related to infectious diseases, occur in children whose immune systems are already weakened by malnutrition, for instance by recurrent diarrhea that can cause damage to the development of children in the form of stunting. Stunting is associated with long-lasting, negative cognitive and physical consequences, including intellectual impairment and elevated risk of adult-onset cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In 2012, nearly a quarter of all children worldwide suffered from stunting. In Bangladesh 41 percent of all under-five children are stunted.